Skip to main content

IR - One Definition A Day: Act of War

IR - One Definition A Day
Act of war
Any act which is incompatible with a state of peace. Under customary international law states had the right to resort to war whenever they deemed it necessary. The principal restraint upon this behaviour was thus the laws of warfare. Distinction must immediately be made between the laws covering the conduct of war - jus in bello - and the laws governing the resort to conflict - jus ad bellum. The idea of an act of war, therefore, properly comes under jus ad bellum. 
Before the establishment of universal international institutions in the twentieth century, there was a good deal of auto-interpretation attached to this concept. In practice, states could decide for themselves what constituted an act of war. Once war had been declared between the parties then notice was served upon the whole state system that relations had changed from peace to war. 
A complicating factor in this was the alliance. States entering alliances took upon themselves obligations to fight each other's wars. If the alliance was to function properly the parties needed to know what constituted an act of war against themselves whereby the alliance would become operational. This is referred to as the casus foederis.
The current century has seen important changes in the laws of war, both ad bellum and in bello. Treaty law, such as that set out in the United Nations Charter, now draws a clear distinction between the legal and illegal use of force. The presumption is now made that force can only be used in self-defence. In the absence of more effective means of conflict resolution, states will resort to force. 
The twentieth century has required its statements to be more imaginative in seeking justification for doing so than in the past. At the same time, use of less direct modes of aggression, such as guerrilla warfare, have made it more difficult to apply the laws of war. 
External intervention in civil wars has become widespread in the twentieth century. Some of the most intractable regional conflicts - such as the Arab-Israeli conflict - originated as communal differences. In sum, just as international lawyers have attempted to establish new criteria for the use of force, other developments have increased uncertainties belligerency.


View under 'Comments' the proposed translation by YourVietnamExpert Translators
French Translation by Anh Tho Andres @YourVietnamExpert.com
Vietnamese Translation by





About YourVietbooks.com
YourVietBooks is a collection of books on Vietnam for Readers who are interested in Vietnam's History, Culture, Language, Economy, or Business. Most titles are in English, but some are only available in French or Vietnamese. We can provide interested parties an accurate translation of some parts of the books for your research purposes. Translations are done by YourVietnamExpert's qualified and experienced translators. contact@yourvietnamexpert.com

Popular posts from this blog

Travel to Vietnam - Nhatrang City and Khanh Hoa Province

Travel to Vietnam
Nhatrang City - Khanh Hoa Province


Original Title in Vietnamese: Du lịch miền Trung và Tây Nguyên - Những điều cần biết: Nha Trang Khánh Hòa
By Authors: Nguyen Gia Nung, Thia Ly, Nguyen van Thanh, Khanh Hoa Tourist Ofice
Journalists: Nguyen Hoang Ba, Khue Viet Truong, Dinh Hanh, Dang Minh Chau
Publishers: Chính Trị Quốc Gia (National Politics)


About the Book:
Published in 1998, the information contained in this book is now obsolete but the book itself shows the early efforts of the provincial and central government to gather valuable information for the visitors to Vietnam. More complete information are available under wikipedia.


Complementary from wikipedia

GeographyNha Trang city has a metropolitan area of 251 km² and population of about 500,000 (as of 2007). It borders Ninh Hòa town by the north, Cam Ranh city by the south, Diên Khánhtown by the west and the South China Sea to the east. The city is located on the beautiful Nha Trang Bay, which was chosen by Travel and Leis…

Vietnamese Classical Literature - 19th Century

Vietnam Classical Literature is not known to the outside world as Chinese Literature. For the younger generation, the study of Vietnamese literature seem to fade away, leaving place to contemporary authors on topics on modern existentialism. In my attempt to "come back to source", I have started a collection of books on Vietnam, and classify them under various topics such as Culture, History, Vietnam War, Politics, Biographies, Contemporary Vietnam, International Relations, Doing Business in Vietnam, Reference and Languages, Zen Buddhism, Philosophy, Art and Literature. 

Here is a short picture of the literary world under the last dynasty of Vietnam: the Nguyen. 

Indeed, the 19th Century was a flourishing century for literature and the arts in Vietnam. It opened up with the Kim Vân Kiều  by Nguyễn Du (1765-1820) and closed with the anonymous Song of True Patriotism (Chính Khí Ca :1900). 

Three outstanding talents, Nguyen Du, Mdm Ho Xuan Huong and Nguyen Dinh Chieu contri…
Here is a short list of books I read between 2009-2010
Author's Biographies Smith, Adam, encyclopedia article about the author <http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Adam+Smith>Austen, Jane, Pride and Prejudice, on SparkNotes <http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/pride/>Henry Maine, encyclopedia article about the author<http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Henry+Maine>Karl Marx, encyclopedia article about the author Karl Marx<http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Karl+Marx>Durkheim: encyclopedia article about the author<http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Durkheim>Max Weber, encyclopedia article about the author <http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Max+Weber>


Books on History-Biography Bartholomew-feis, Dixee R, The Oss and Ho Chi Minh: Unexpected Allies in the War Against Japan. University Press of Kansas, 2009. Berman, Larry. Perfect Spy: The Incredible Double Life of Pham Xuan An, Time Magazine Reporter and Vietnamese Communist …