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IR-One-Definition-A-Day: NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (1949)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was created in 1949 by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union.

Signing of the NATO Treaty
Signing of the NATO Treaty

NATO was the first peacetime military alliance the United States entered into outside of the Western Hemisphere. After the destruction of the Second World War, the nations of Europe struggled to rebuild their economies and ensure their security. The former required a massive influx of aid to help the war-torn landscapes re-establish industries and produce food, and the latter required assurances against a resurgent Germany or incursions from the Soviet Union. The United States viewed an economically strong, rearmed, and integrated Europe as vital to the prevention of communist expansion across the continent. As a result, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a program of large-scale economic aid to Europe. The resulting European Recovery Program, or Marshall Plan, not only facilitated European economic integration but promoted the idea of shared interests and cooperation between the United States and Europe. Soviet refusal either to participate in the Marshall Plan or to allow its satellite states in Eastern Europe to accept the economic assistance helped to reinforce the growing division between east and west in Europe.

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Travel to Vietnam - Nhatrang City and Khanh Hoa Province

Travel to Vietnam
Nhatrang City - Khanh Hoa Province


Original Title in Vietnamese: Du lịch miền Trung và Tây Nguyên - Những điều cần biết: Nha Trang Khánh Hòa
By Authors: Nguyen Gia Nung, Thia Ly, Nguyen van Thanh, Khanh Hoa Tourist Ofice
Journalists: Nguyen Hoang Ba, Khue Viet Truong, Dinh Hanh, Dang Minh Chau
Publishers: Chính Trị Quốc Gia (National Politics)


About the Book:
Published in 1998, the information contained in this book is now obsolete but the book itself shows the early efforts of the provincial and central government to gather valuable information for the visitors to Vietnam. More complete information are available under wikipedia.


Complementary from wikipedia

GeographyNha Trang city has a metropolitan area of 251 km² and population of about 500,000 (as of 2007). It borders Ninh Hòa town by the north, Cam Ranh city by the south, Diên Khánhtown by the west and the South China Sea to the east. The city is located on the beautiful Nha Trang Bay, which was chosen by Travel and Leis…

Vietnamese Classical Literature - 19th Century

Vietnam Classical Literature is not known to the outside world as Chinese Literature. For the younger generation, the study of Vietnamese literature seem to fade away, leaving place to contemporary authors on topics on modern existentialism. In my attempt to "come back to source", I have started a collection of books on Vietnam, and classify them under various topics such as Culture, History, Vietnam War, Politics, Biographies, Contemporary Vietnam, International Relations, Doing Business in Vietnam, Reference and Languages, Zen Buddhism, Philosophy, Art and Literature. 

Here is a short picture of the literary world under the last dynasty of Vietnam: the Nguyen. 

Indeed, the 19th Century was a flourishing century for literature and the arts in Vietnam. It opened up with the Kim Vân Kiều  by Nguyễn Du (1765-1820) and closed with the anonymous Song of True Patriotism (Chính Khí Ca :1900). 

Three outstanding talents, Nguyen Du, Mdm Ho Xuan Huong and Nguyen Dinh Chieu contri…
Here is a short list of books I read between 2009-2010
Author's Biographies Smith, Adam, encyclopedia article about the author <http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Adam+Smith>Austen, Jane, Pride and Prejudice, on SparkNotes <http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/pride/>Henry Maine, encyclopedia article about the author<http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Henry+Maine>Karl Marx, encyclopedia article about the author Karl Marx<http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Karl+Marx>Durkheim: encyclopedia article about the author<http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Durkheim>Max Weber, encyclopedia article about the author <http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Max+Weber>


Books on History-Biography Bartholomew-feis, Dixee R, The Oss and Ho Chi Minh: Unexpected Allies in the War Against Japan. University Press of Kansas, 2009. Berman, Larry. Perfect Spy: The Incredible Double Life of Pham Xuan An, Time Magazine Reporter and Vietnamese Communist …